Monday, October 31, 2011

Transitioning Naps to Crib (i.e. a Tome on Sleep)

This is my first post on sleep. Ever. That is because it has just recently become interesting to me.

My 3-year old took his naps in the carrier (Moby then Ergo and occasionally Mei Tai) until he got too heavy to carry (around 20 months). Then we tried to get him to nap in bed and he didn't know how to fall asleep on his own. Since then, he has been falling asleep in a stroller (we love our BOB Revolution on the trail which is a quarter mile from the house) or in the car and being transferred to the bed. Three years in, I am thinking it would be awfully nice if he knew how to let go during the day and fall asleep for a nap. I remember asking various people (ahem, like our pediatrician) how long babies nap. I was told they stop between 18 months and 3 years or so. Now that we are at 3, it is quite clear they are mostly needed, and most of his buddies nap daily. Heck, preschools all nap the kids, and they are 3 and 4 years old. So I wish that someone would have told me then that kids usually nap until kindergarten. I like to think that this bit of information would have inspired me to help the little guy learn how to fall asleep on his own for naps. One can never be sure, but I did stand my ground on him falling asleep at night in bed, knowing he would always need to fall asleep at night while laying flat.

I mention this because I now have a 4-month old baby. In hopes of improving his chances at napping at home without a struggle for the next five years, I am researching sleep. I did love having the first baby nap on me. I really think it helped us bond, plus I didn't have to stay home all the time, and I always knew he was ok (the threat of SIDS freaked me out and I had read that babies are less vulnerable if they sleep next to an adult because they regulate their breathing using the other's breath). I had also just read The Continuum Concept and Our Babies, Ourselves and was feeling like American babies could use more cuddling. Because of this, I never put him down "drowsy but awake." Plus, the sound of him crying made me physically ache. I couldn't stand it at all.

In my sleep research thus far, there seems to be a continuum of methods. They seem to trade crying for length of time it takes to reach the end goal of having your baby sleep through the night (not just the technical definition of 5 hours). They all get there by teaching the baby to fall asleep on their own ("self-soothe"), then when the baby wakes up briefly between sleep cycles, as we all do, they won't need whatever intervention we used to get them to sleep to get them to fall back asleep. The idea is that once they know how to fall asleep, they will know how to fall back to sleep. They all also pull this through to naps as a matter of course. In our experience with our toddler, naps were totally different than nighttime sleep. But maybe that was our problem.

I haven't read any of the "cry it out" books, but I did read one handout. It said you do a  specific bed (or naptime) routine, then put the baby in bed and kiss them goodbye then check on them in 5 minutes then 10 minutes then 15 minute intervals until they are asleep or an hour has passed. You try again for the nap if they didn't fall asleep in that hour. The stricter cry it out skips the check-ins. Ferber is less strict and Weisbluth is more strict, as far as I know. I would like to avoid this method because I want to believe that if my baby is crying then something is wrong. I also don't want him crying alone.

In the middle is the Baby Whisperer and the Sleep Lady. The baby whisperer says a lot of things I disagree with (like wanting your figure back is a contraindication to breastfeeding), but she says that, for sleep, babies need to be given a chance to learn to sleep on their own. She recommends a naptime routine, then putting a tired baby in the crib. She says to pick up the baby if he gets upset (not necessarily immediately), calm him, then put him back down. And then to repeat this over and over again.  At night, she advocates a "dream feed" before mom goes to sleep.  The sleep lady lays out a progressive plan which inches you in a chair towards the door away from the crib in about a fortnight. Each of these have a few tears, but the babies are accompanied through their transition.

At the attachment parenting side of the continuum is The No-Cry Sleep Solution. Pantley recommends a few solutions to helping your baby sleep longer. She urges you to keep a log, but only every 10 days because any more often would be too frustrating to see any results. She says the results will come in time, with persistence. Her solutions include having a specific naptime routine, which ends in a drowsy baby if you started when the baby was tired. She gives phases for comforting a baby in a crib, beginning with keeping you nestled around him in the crib patting and shhhhh-ing then slowly moving further away until all baby needs is "shhhh" from the doorway. She also encourages co-sleeping (as none of the other books do), but says to make sure baby is really awake in the middle of the night before rushing to comfort, and to try to pat and shhhh before nursing. She also says to stay awake while nursing so that baby doesn't get used to sucking to sleep, and so that you can gradually shorten each feeding session time until it is too short to be worth baby's while to wake up for. This is similar to what our new pediatrician said, actually. I asked her how to get the baby to nurse less at night. She said not to feed him at night, and then he wouldn't get hungry at night. Her tip for getting baby to stop falling asleep nursing is to pull baby off while patting and shhhh-ing, then gently hold baby's jaw closed with one finger under the chin. And to re-attach baby if he complained, then to let him suck and repeat the pulling off over and over. She also recommends co-sleepers to scoot away from baby so the milk smell doesn't wake him. Another recommendation is to introduce a lovey.

Of these methods, the no-cry is most appealing. I have been trying some of the nighttime methods and was down to 2 night wakings a couple of (nonconsecutive) times this week.  I have been trying the crib tactics for naps and am amazed that they seem to be working. I had always thought that the advice to lay baby down tired but awake meant to do this then leave them there. I have learned that it means to do a naptime routine to get them tired, then lay them down drowsy, then by all means you can stay to comfort them to sleep. I think this comforting is a transitioning stage to eventually saying goodnight and leaving them to fall asleep alone, but I am not sure.

The challenge for napping a baby routinely in the crib is when you aren't home for naps. Figuring out the balance of how often you need to be home versus out for naps, and how to nap the baby while out is another question. With my first, it was simple. He would sleep on the go easily in a carrier, stroller, or car seat. This new baby used to sleep in the Moby and now refuses it. He has yet to fall asleep in the car seat. I tried putting him in the car seat and swinging it, and I tried the same thing with him swaddled in a friend's Moses Basket. Both times he got close, but didn't make it to dream land. He can fall asleep in a baby swing, but he cries for 5-10 minutes (whimpering). I have put him to sleep once then set him into the car seat (with a friend's help) and tried to replicate that and failed. I finally tried a New Native sling, and he will reliably sleep in it on the go if I hold him in it horizontally and sway, pat, and shhh like I do when calming him for naps in the crib. Then I can release it to its intended position when his eyes close.

Our current nap routine now, two weeks out from when he refused to sleep in the Moby, has morphed a bit over this time.

I first was swaddling then nursing him to sleep. I didn't like this because it made him poop and threw off our routine of nursing upon waking (or soon after). It also seems like it wakes him up a little, and always takes 20 minutes. My toddler is not always that patient, either, especially with my back to him and laying down. And if he wants to also lay down, he likes to talk, and then I think it is hard for the baby to fall asleep.

Then I tried standing and swaying while patting and shhh-ing (after swaddling and putting on the white noise machine). I would let him fall asleep in my arms then gently lower him and sneak away. The problem with this was the escape. It is hard to lower the baby onto the bed or crib (which we got last weekend) without waking him. Then it is hard to extract oneself without waking him. This is, of course, made more difficult with a little talking companion. We sorted out that the baby could fall asleep with the toddler around, though, but the toddler had to go in the other room for the lowering into bed and escape. Then, of course, the baby would wake up at times and we would need to start again.

Then I started some of the no-cry crib ideas. For three days now I have been doing an actual nap routine. First we potty. Then we read a book in the rocking chair. Then we put on a diaper and swaddle blanket or sleep sack. Then I turn on the sound machine. Then I sway and pat and shhh like before but when his eyes start to close I take my leap of faith and keep swaying and shhh-ing but move downwards and gently place him in the crib, continuing my sounds and pats. If he cries, I count to ten five times and usually by then he has started sucking on his hands. I don't remember where I read that hand sucking, rolling to one side, and whimpering are how they self-soothe. As his eyes close, I stay there. I am trying to pat in a non-routine pattern so that he doesn't start to rely on them to fall asleep. If he gets mad, I pick him up to quiet him and set him down again.  I look at the clock to watch one minute pass after I think he is asleep. Then I gently release pressure or extract myself or just raise myself from my cribside position. 

After another day or two of this, I intend to lay him down when his eyes start to blink longer instead of when they close on and off.

After a few days of that, I hope to be able to shorten the swaying and patting and shhh-ing.

After a few days of that, I would like to drop the swaying and patting and shhh-ing.

After a few days of that, I will shorten the patting and shh-ing in the crib.

Perhaps eventually he won't need that at all; the theory is that you can comfort with a shhh from across the room (Pantley calls this a cue sound- just like in doing EC) or from the doorway.

I also want to drop the swaddle soon (but use a sleep sack) and maybe drop the white noise machine. We have a little pull toy that sings a lullaby and attaches to the side of the crib. I am thinking of inserting that into the routine- maybe at the point when he is set in the crib. I don't want to complicate matters unnecessarily, though. The idea is that we will start his naptime routine 15 minutes before sleeping time and the toddler can stay through books.
To achieve this timing, I am trying to watch the clock and the baby for sleepy cues, which he is good about giving. He yawns and cries when he is tired, and his awake amount of time from waking to sleeping again is fairly consistent (about 1.5 hours to 2 hours, depending on the time of day).

Currently, I am also trying to lengthen his naps from 45 minutes in the crib by coming in right when he makes a noise and shhh-ing and patting. When I try and nurse then, it ends up waking him up to go potty because there is plenty of milk to push his digestion through. The other way to lengthen naps I may try is to wait when I hear him, and see if he can sort it out in a couple of minutes without getting upset. Another way I read you can lengthen naps is to go in about 10 minutes before you think baby will awaken. You touch them or move something just enough for them to stir; the idea is that they will stir then resettle into another 45 minute sleep cycle. When he was sleeping in the carrier, he would take one 2 hour nap per day and the rest would be 45 minutes. I need to sort out when he is tired enough to take that long nap- maybe when I go in and he isn't cheery...

In conclusion, there is a lot of "coaching" that it seems like babies are capable of being molded by. It is amazing and counterintuitive that babies need to learn to sleep. I want to help my baby learn to sleep so that he will enjoy taking naps and sleeping at night, and feel good and grow strong and smart.

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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Diet Roundup

The New Atkins
This is a 4-phase approach to weight loss.  It starts with a more stringent program, then ends with the maintenance phase.  This low-carb program is unlike the Atkins we all learned about a decade ago because they are now encouraging five servings of veggies per day and touting it as a healthy lifestyle with plenty of options for how to follow these phases.  Their website has menu planning tools, recipes, and you can also buy their bars and shakes.  The basic idea is that you change your body from a carb-burning to a fat-burning machine.  They claim this will give you more energy as you lose weight.  Instead of counting calories, they have meal guidelines and daily carb counts.  There are lists of acceptable foods for each phase, and they recommend never being hungry and eating every few hours while awake.  It is very specific, but there seem to be many tools to help you plan what to eat.

The Zone
This has also been around for a while, and doesn't allow complex carbohydrates.  Its basic premise is to visually have 2/3 of your plate as colorful carbs (i.e. simple carbohydrates like fruits and veggies), 1/3 as protein, and a dash of healthy oils.  There are daily maximums, though, so it is a bit more complex than it seems.  The website details these, and has recipe and meal suggestions.  Dr. Sears' website also has plenty of supplements and meal replacement items, as well as a two-week meal purchase plan to get you going.  

Paleo/ Primal
The idea behind these diets is that man has only lived in cities for the last 100 years, and only had agriculture for the last 10,000 years, but our bodies have been the same for 40,000 years.  As such, they argue that the diet best suited to us (and henceforth the one in which we will look our best and be healthiest) is a hunter gatherer diet made up of meat, fruit, and vegetables.  And to have this be mostly items that would have been gathered, since early man would likely have done most of his eating as a feast or famine with meat. They also say to eat offal as much as possible, and as much game as possible as well. All the foods sourced should be organic and grass fed and as high of a quality and purity as possible. The folks arguing for a primal blueprint diet also argue for exercising like a caveman; that is, to exercise in short bursts (ie run from predators), to walk slowly for a long time (ie gather food or migrate), and to carry heavy things around (ie move rocks etc). This way of eating is also argued to make you feel better and to help your genes reach their maximal expression.

The gut and psychology syndrome diet (GAPS) is geared towards those who are autistic, skistophrenic, or have other illnesses, but sounds like it could help anyone heal allergies and recover from their illnesses. Dr. McBride claims that her GAPS diet is similar to the specific carbohydrate diet, which used to be prescribed to autistic patients, but better. This diet has an introduction and maintenance phase, and the introduction is in phases. Depending on the patient's age, you could run through them in 6 to 18 months, or maybe longer. The idea behind the diet is that illness is caused by the gut, and this diet can heal the gut. She gives very specific lists of foods and how to prepare them in order to give the gut a long enough break to heal.  It is a grain-free diet, although properly prepared grains are legal later. On the diet, bone broth is liberally consumed, as are boiled meats, animal fats, and some cooked vegetables.  You make your own yogurt, and consume probiotic food, including home fermented sauerkraut. These help the gut repopulate good bacteria as the bad bacteria are dying.  Supplements include fermented cod liver oil and probiotics. There is also a detoxification component (enemas). You gradually add back in foods like cooked and raw fruits and soaked nuts. The internet is full of people on this diet, so many tools are available in addition to the book to help you menu plan and follow the diet. People who are very ill have seen their conditions reverse as well as skin clear up and allergies disappear after following this diet. It is very rigid, but promises life altering results.

Weston Price 
Weston Price was a prominent dentist who, in the early 1900s, took a research voyage around the world to look at teeth, and talk to people about their diets. He visited many indiginous cultures, and his timing was such that he caught many groups in which some people were eating traditionally and some had adapted the foods of the white man (modern packaged foods made with white flour and white sugar). What he found was that those who adhered to their traditional cuisine and cooking methods were those with the broadest faces, whose jaws had room for all of their teeth, and whose teeth were intact and aligned properly. These people showed better overall health and wellness. He found these same results within communities and even within families in order to rule out the question of it being the genes. He methodically proved it to be gene expression, and directly linked to food consumption. He tested their foods for nutrient value, and examined cooking methods. 
The cookbook Nourishing Traditions is written with these food preparation techniques. These include soaking grains and nuts, fermenting vegetables, making and using stock, and avoiding white flour and processed sugar. In addition to following these methods, the daily food balance is important. 

In the book Cure Tooth Decay, which is one of myriad books based on Price's research, Dr. Nagiel recommends daily meat and vegetable stew, drinking raw milk, eating fermented foods, avoiding grains, and severely limiting sweets of any sort except occasional in-season cooked fruit. He also recommends supplemental fermented cod liver oil mixed with high vitamin butter oil. This butter oil contains Price's mysterious vitamin K2, which he thought was the secret of many groups' longevity and health. It is found in raw spring butter from pastured cows. He also recommends eating plenty of fats, but only from pastured animals or unheated olive oil. Price's research and recommendations can help to maximize our genetic expression by eating the most nutrient dense food available. 

In the book Deep Nutrition, Dr. Shanahan uses Price's research to recommend traditional cuisine.  She recommends avoiding processed sugar and vegetable oils, and what she calls the Four Pillars of traditional cuisine: meat on the bone, fermented and sprouted foods, organs and other "nasty bits," and fresh, unadulterated plant and animal products.

If this is daunting, Three Stone Hearth in Berkeley is a co-op kitchen which cooks as recommend and sells their food weekly. The portions are small, so it seems a bit expensive, but the food is highly nourishing. The ingredients are sourced from the best the bay area has to offer (organic, grass-fed, local). They also re-use everything, and sell the food in glass mason jars, so the environmental impact is negligible. You just need to plan in advance for the week, but once you are on their email list and weekly cycle, it is easy.

Food Delivery 
Another option is in-home food delivery (or weekly pickup). There are a number of businesses who plan your diet for you, then you can either pick them up or have the food delivered. Diet to Go is one of these services. You can pick up twice weekly at a gym in Walnut Creek, or have it delivered weekly via FedEx for a few more dollars. Bistro MD is another service that mails a weekly box of fresh food that is frozen then packed in dry ice in a cooler and shipped to you. You can choose how many days per week and how many meals you want with these services. They also will let you substitute what foods you like and dislike. They even let you choose low carb or low calorie. Both of these services are comparable, with tasty food and plenty of variety. They both also use a variety of oils and could use fewer additives to be a bit "cleaner" eating. Neither is organic. The environmental footprint of these also can't be small, since the meals are individually packaged and shipped weekly.  But they are delicious and so easy. All you do is re-heat. Bistro MD is a bit tastier and organized better than Diet to Go, which serves mostly Americana. 

Other services that do this are NutriSystem, eDiets, Freshology, and the Chef's Diet. NutriSystem ships monthly and is a lot cheaper (around $7 per day). Diet to go, Bistro MD, and eDiets all average $25/ day. The Chef's Diet and Freshology are nearly double the cost.

Eat Right for Your Type
Eat Right 4 Your Type is based on a similar idea as the primal diets. But he takes it in a slightly different direction.  The idea is that we all have a best diet for us, which is what our ancestors ate. Dr. D'Adamo says we can determine our optimal diet by looking at our blood type. Each blood type represents a different lineage, and each lineage flourished under different circumstances. He gives lists of foods for you to eat and avoid based on your blood type. He also makes personality generalizations and offers advice as to your best way to exercise.

Dr. Mark Hyman also uses the idea of nutrigenomics, which is that each person has their own ideal diet. He also believes in food as medicine, and throughout his books there are quizzes to help you determine which areas you need more help with (ie add supplements or herbs, or just foods). He has 7 keys, including detoxification (sauna), stress management, gut health, hormonal balance, the environment, inflammation, and exercise. His book guides you through your own journey to improve your health and vitality. He sells a cookbook as well, though the main book helps implement the food choices with pre-planned menus, shopping, and pantry lists.

Raw Vegan 
Our food is full of enzymes. These help our bodies digest the food. Those who are Raw Vegan believe that heating food above 115 degrees kills these enzymes. They believe that the life force of the plants can increase their life force when ingested Raw. There are plenty of cookbooks and websites with recipe ideas that go far beyond juices and smoothies. Foods include raw soups, dehydrated crackers, and sprouts in many ways. Cafe Gratitude in Oakland and Berkeley was opened as a Raw Vegan restaurant. Followers of a Raw Vegan lifestyle thin out as time goes by, and they often claim detoxification benefits as well as increased vigor.

Cleanse Diets
A Cleanse is not so much a diet as just a starting point, or one to return to annually (or semi-annually, or quarterly). The idea behind a Cleanse is that the body absorbs toxins as a result of daily life: from our foods, the air, and our buildings. These toxins can tax our systems, and giving the liver and colon a break can help them work better the rest of the time. To give them a break, you spend around 10 days doing something special. On the Master Cleanse, the time is spent drinking lemonade made from filtered water, lemons or limes, maple syrup, and cayenne pepper. There is also detoxification in the form of senna tea or by drinking Epson salt. People often lose a lot of weight quickly. Coming off the Master Cleanse requires diligence and planning, otherwise sickness and weight gain result. To come off this, or any other cleanse, properly you must begin by eating slowly and the diet which comes after must be less toxifying than that which preceded, otherwise all is for naught.  Other cleanses include fruit or vegetable juice cleanses, or a smoothie cleanse. Dr. Elson Haas has a number of ideas in his book, and he runs group cleanse sessions out of his San Rafael office.

The pH Miracle 
Every food is either an acid or a base, and the alkalinity of the food effects the alkalinity of our tissues. Our optimal pH is slightly alkaline, and eating more vegetables and fewer grains and meats helps tip the body towards better health. Dr. Robert Young and Shelley Young tout this, as well as drinking alkaline water and a green drink, to help you be at your ideal weight. They also urge a mostly raw diet, filled with sprouted foods and healthy fats.

Group Support Programs
Many people need help as they lose weight. Jenny Craig and Weight Watchers are two programs you can join which can guide you by using an actual human face to face who knows you. They each also have an online only option. Each allows a certain number of each food per day, and you can prepare your own food or buy it ready-made. Each has changed its image through time to keep up with trends while helping people lose weight.  They are based on calorie counts and food groups.

Meal Replacements 
Medifast and Slim Fast are two of the better known examples of meal replacement diets. With these, you replace a portion of your daily meals with their shakes. These are quick-loss programs, which means the transition back to food often comes with re-gaining the weight. They are easy to use, though. Each offers more than just shakes as well, although the ingredients are far from wholesome.  Medifast has a number of specialty programs, including one for nursing mothers. It seems to be just their regular program plus 300 calories per day, though.  Slim Fast is widely available, and relatively inexpensive.

Diet Comparison Chart

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Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Football Party Menu Ideas

Maybe it won't be the Raiders this year... but a little guy's gotta' have faith.

DIPS (for chips, cut veggies, pita triangles, etc.):

(modified from the Eat Clean Diet Cookbook by Tosca Reno)
2 avocados
1/2 cup frozen peas, defrosted
1/2 cup spinach, cooked
1/2 cup cilantro, chopped
1 tomato, chopped
juice of a lime
salt as desired

Mix in food processor.

Bean Dip
(modified from the Eat Clean Diet Cookbook by Tosca Reno)
1 cup kidney beans, soaked overnight
1 sheet kombu seaweed, optional
1 T olive oil
1 t chili powder
1 t dried oregano or 1 T fresh oregano
1/2 red onion, minced
1 clove garlic, minced
salt and pepper as desired

Drain kidney beans and cover with water. Add a sheet of kombu seaweed if you have it (will make beans more digestible). Bring to a boil.  Lower to a simmer and cook for an hour, or until soft.

Blend beans and olive oil in food processor.  Move to bowl and add other ingredients.  Mix until just incorporated.

Yogurt Cream Cheese
1 qt. organic full-fat yogurt

Line colander with cheesecloth or clean dish towel (we use clean flat fold diapers!). Place colander over deeper bowl.  Pour yogurt into colander and let drip in refrigerator for 24-48 hours.  Can add herbs as desired, or eat plain (as you would sour cream or cream cheese).  The liquid that is in the bowl is whey, which can be used as a probiotic drink plain or can be added to smoothies or used as a starter for a fermentation project.


Sue's Asian Turkey Burgers 
(that's my mother-in-law, pictured above)
1 lb. ground turkey
4 T soy sauce
2 T sesame oil (she uses spicy, I use regular)
2 T ground ginger (I use fresh)
2 garlic cloves, minced

Combine. Make into 16 patties for sliders and 8 for hamburgers.  Barbecue or broil for about 15 minutes, flipping halfway through.

Baked Meatballs
(modified from Alton Brown)
1 lb. ground beef
1 bunch kale or swiss chard or spinach, chopped and tough stems removed
1 egg
1 t basil
1 t parsley
3/4 t garlic powder
3/4 t salt
1/2 t red pepper flakes

Mix ingredients by hand.  Divide into muffin cups. Bake at 350 degrees for 25 minutes.

Tofu Nuggets
(modified from Deceptively Delicious by Jessica Seinfeld)
1 cup bread crumbs
1 T flaxseed meal
1 T grated parmesan
1/2 t paprika
1 cup spinach or broccoli puree
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 pkg extra firm tofu (use as fresh as possible), cut into 1/2 inch cubes
1/2 t salt
2 T coconut oil, butter, or pastured lard

Mix first four ingredients. Set aside.  In a shallow bowl, mix puree and egg.   Sprinkle tofu cubes with salt, then dip into egg mixture then bread crumb mixture. Heat oil in hot skillet.  Add tofu nuggets in a single layer, and cook until lightly browned on each side, 3 to 4 minutes.  Turn and cook until all is golden, about 2 to 3 more minutes.

Garlic Sweet Potato Home Fries
4 sweet potatoes, cut into sticks (skins-on)
4 cloves garlic, minced
1 t lemon pepper
1/2 t cayenne
1/2 t cumin
1 t sea salt
1 t dried dill
2 T butter or coconut oil or pastured lard

Brown sweet potatoes in oil in cast iron skillet over high heat.  Add rest of ingredients and mix to combine.  Spread potatoes into a single layer. Bake for 25 minutes at 350 degrees.

Also set out bowls of grape or cherry tomatoes, cut carrots and celery, and lightly steamed broccoli and cauliflower.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

The Tools to the Kingdom

...all I need is this hammer.... then I can take this screw off... no, I think I need the drill... how about those scissors...
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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Bicycle Bucket Tutorial Review

We just made this bicycle bucket for the little guy's new bike with training wheels.  He had been liking the tricycle a LOT, but it also had a huge trunk. The bike came without any cargo space!  So he chose the fabrics, and we started cutting...

Overall, I like Noodlehead and her stuff.  This bucket ended up a bit small for us, but maybe others don't need so much stuff.  The interfacing wasn't thick enough (I used lightweight fusible and she recommends medium weight double sided), and I didn't get the whole thing covered, somehow, on the inside.  I assembled it by fusing it to the pieces first, so that is probably where we got mixed up.  I also added the bike tab on the piece before attaching the pieces together. I did this to make it smoother on the inside (a la making a purse), though I am not sure the toddler cares about this detail.

After using it, we think it is great! It is easy to take on and off, and a good size for all the essentials... Pin It


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